Kidney Failure


What are the symptoms of kidney failure?

The main function of the kidneys, as it is known, lies in filtering and purifying the blood from toxins, ridding it of excess fluids, regulating the level of essential salts and minerals in the body, and it performs many other functions, including: producing hormones that help regulate blood pressure and others that stimulate the production of red blood cells It also produces the active type of vitamin D, which is important for maintaining healthy and strong bones.

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However, the kidneys may be exposed to some health factors and problems that affect the ability of the kidneys to perform their functions properly, causing the accumulation of toxins in the body, and the inability of the kidneys to get rid of them, which may eventually lead to kidney failure. Kidney failure, or the so-called kidney failure, which may be life-threatening, especially in the absence of appropriate treatment.

Kidney failure cases are divided into two main types:

  • Acute kidney failure: In this case, the kidneys stop working suddenly, without the person suffering from any chronic kidney disease, and this may occur in the event of severe bleeding as a result of an injury or surgery, or if Severe dehydration, or the use of some types of medications, and it should be noted that this type of kidney failure can be treated in some cases and cured so that kidney functions return to their previous normal state.
  • Chronic kidney failure: Kidney failure in this type results from a chronic kidney disease that gradually loses the ability to perform its functions. Chronic kidney failure is the last and most advanced stage of these diseases, and the patient in this case needs to To transplant a new kidney or undergo continuous dialysis to keep him alive.

Symptoms of kidney failure

The kidneys are characterized by their high ability to fill and compensate for the deficiency in their functions, so that the patient does not show any symptoms or signs that predict kidney failure until after the kidneys have been damaged and severely damaged. Their appearance does not necessarily mean that a person has kidney failure, these symptoms may be accompanied by a number of diseases and other health problems, and the following are the most important symptoms and signs that may indicate kidney failure:

  • Swollen feet or ankles.
  • Notice changes in the amount of urine excreted from the body.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  •  General physical fatigue and exhaustion. Anorexia.
  • Facing sleep problems, muscle spasms.
  • High blood pressure and difficulty returning it to normal.
  •  Lack of focus and mental alertness.
  • Chest pain if fluid collects around the diaphragm of the heart.
  • Difficulty or shortness of breath if fluid collects in the lungs.
  • Suffering from itching constantly.

Diagnosis of kidney failure

There are many tests and tests available to help the doctor diagnose kidney failure and determine its cause. The most important of them can be stated as follows:

  • Blood tests: A blood test usually measures kidney function by determining the amount of certain substances that the kidneys are responsible for getting rid of, the most important of which are: creatinine and blood urea nitrogen; A high concentration of these substances in the blood may indicate kidney failure.
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  • Urinalysis: that is, a urine sample is taken from a person for analysis; In search of any disturbances in the content, appearance or concentration of urine, the following is a statement of the most important parameters of urine analysis:

  1. Appearance: The normal urine is clear, while cloudy urine or the emission of an unusual smell from it indicates infection in the urinary tract in most cases, and the color of the urine is checked, as its appearance in red or brown may indicate blood in the urine, and it should be noted that The appearance of urine in a reddish color does not mean that there is blood in it, as urine is affected by eating some types of foods.
  2. Acidic urine: A change in the acidity of the urine may indicate a kidney disease or health problem.
  3. Concentration of proteins in the urine: The presence of proteins in a small amount in the urine is normal, but the high content of proteins in the urine in a way that exceeds the normal limits indicates that the kidneys have a health problem.
  4. The concentration of sugar in the urine: detecting the presence of sugar in the urine may be an indication of diabetes.
  5. Detection of bilirubin: The presence of bilirubin in the urine may indicate that the liver has been damaged or infected with a disease and health problem.
  6. Detection of blood: which may be an indication of kidney damage, infection, or the presence of a cancerous tumor or stones in the kidneys or bladder.
  7. Microscopic examination: This is by examining the kidney sample under a microscope to check its content of white or red blood cells, bacteria, fungi, crystal crystals, or cylindrical proteins known as cylinders. It should be noted that the presence of any of these substances in abnormal quantities indicates that the kidneys are exposed to a disease or health problem.

  • Urine volume measurements: Urine volume measurements are one of the simple tests that help diagnose the cause of kidney failure. Urinating in very small amounts, for example, often indicates a blockage in the urethra. .
  • Imaging tests: These tests provide an image of the kidneys and urinary tract in search of any blockage or disorder, and the most important of these tests are: Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan. 
  • Kidney biopsy: The doctor takes a sample of the kidneys directly using a special needle while the person is under local anesthesia, and examines it under a microscope, looking for any abnormal deposits, scar tissue, or pathogens.